Located in Western India, Rajasthan is the largest state that borders Pakistan to the west, Gujarat to the southwest, Madhya Pradesh to the southeast, Punjab to the north, and Uttar Pradesh and Haryana to the northeast.
Rajasthan has changing climate like its varying topography. The Aravalli Range cradles Mount Abu, the sole hill station of Rajasthan. The mountain range, the eastern fertile plains, the western arid plains, experiences different climatic conditions. The state covers most of the area of Thar Desert with one edge paralleling the Sutlej -- Indus river valley along with its border with Pakistan.
The climate or weather of Rajasthan can be classified into four seasons: Pre-Monsoon, Monsoon, Post-Monsoon and Winter.
Pre-Monsoon: This season is the sultry season of the year. The hottest season, summer, extends from April to June. During this time, temperature of Rajasthan hovers between 32ºC and 45ºC. In May and June, temperature in western Rajasthan may record 48ºC. Mt Abu registers the lowest temperature. However in the desert region, temperature drops sharply during night. Heavy winds from the west sometimes bring dust storms or squalls, also called andhi.
Monsoon: With onset of the Monsoon season, comes the much-needed relief. The season extends from July to September. The temperature falls from 40ºC to 35ºC. With this drop in temperature, humidity rises. Rajasthan records maximum, about 90%, rainfall during this period.
Post-Monsoon: The season comes after Monsoon and begins from mid-September and continues till November. During this period, the maximum temperature varies from 33ºC to 38ºC, and minimum temperature hovers between 18ºC to 20ºC.
Winter: This is the season with most favorable conditions and the best time to visit Rajasthan. Winter extends from December to March. January is the coolest month. Temperature varies throughout Rajasthan and the lowest temperature recorded is 0ºC in Churu region. Slight rain can also be recorded in the north and northeastern parts of the state, during when relative humidity varies from 50-60% in the morning, and 25-35% in the afternoon. On an average, winter temperatures vary between 8ºC to 28ºC.
Average rainfall: The average rainfall varies across Rajasthan. The desert receives an annual rainfall of 100 mm. The southeastern region gets annually 650 mm. Maximum rainfall received is during July to September in Monsoon.